The Cultures and Traditions of Mozambique

One of the wonderful things about Mozambique that makes it such a popular tourist destination is its rich culture and diverse way of life. Many customs in Mozambique are rooted in the culture of local groups, passed down by the generations. Let’s have a look as some of these interesting traditions and customs which make Mozambique so unique.

The Language

The official language spoken in Mozambique is Portuguese, but there are over 40 different languages and dialects that originate from the Bantu family.


Western clothes have overtaken the traditional dress of the Mozambicans, however, the Capulana which is a thick cloth with colourful art printed on it is still worn by some women on top of what they are wearing and is wrapped from the waist downwards.

Scarves are wrapped around their hair, or on top of their heads, sometimes used as a pillow when carrying and transporting goods.


The culture of Mozambique is also featured through its cuisine which combines African, European, Indian, Malayan and even Chinese food. The seafood is fresh and many rich spices are used to add flavour to stews. Staple foods include rice and cornmeal dough. Mozambique has a lovely variety of fruit, such as oranges, grapefruits, bananas, papayas, avocados and coconuts.

Music and Dancing

Many religious or traditional events include music and dance; like most African countries, it is how they express themselves. There are various styles of dance and a variation of instruments and rhythms are incorporated. Traditional musical instruments are handmade from wood, fruits and animal skin, such as the lupembe, the marimba and the timbila.

Dancing ceremonies

Local dance ceremonies in Mozambique include the hunting dance of the Chopi, where the dancers dress in lion skins, the ‘hopping’ dance of the Makua men who move around on tall stilts and the Tofu dance of Mozambique Island and the northern coast. In Tete, a common dance is Nyanga, where the dancer sings and plays the Panpipes (also called the Nyanga). Another dance of the region is the Nyau Gule Wamkulu Dance.


Music is very important to the Niassa people who live in the sparsely populated North-Western region. They use wind instruments, made from dry and hollowed calabashes, which produce a similar sound to a trumpet. Musicians in a band play instruments of different sizes.

Cultural differences between groups

When it comes to cultural differences, there is one main distinction between groups. In southern Mozambique, groups such as the Thonga are patrilineal, where families trace their descent through the male line.

But in northern areas of the country, many groups are matrilineal. This means males trace their ancestry back through their mother. In these groups, it is common for husbands to live near their wife’s family.

The Makonde

The Makonde are a well-known tribe in Mozambique, known for their fearlessness and initiation rituals. They live mainly in the Cabo Delgado Province and are renowned for their “Mapico” masks which are used during initiation rituals, as well as their mahogany, ebony and ivory carvings which depict their rich cultural heritage.

They tattoo their bodies and sharpen their teeth purely for aesthetic purposes. As well as carving Mapiko masks, the Makonde are also known for their wood sculptures. These often include a number of figures for stories about the generations. This type of sculpture is known as “family trees”.

Religions in Mozambique

Mozambique has a wide mix of religions. Around a third of Mozambicans are Christian, with Roman Catholicism the major denomination. Around a quarter are Muslims, mainly in the northern regions.

Nearly half the population practices traditional animist beliefs, where the spirits of ancestors can affect the lives of the living. Many groups also believe in an all-powerful God, as well as spirits. Therefore, it is not unusual for traditional beliefs to be incorporated into Christianity.

Get to know more about the beauty of Mozambique by booking your next holiday with us, we look forward to welcoming you!